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Thioredoxin-dependent redox regulation of chloroplastic phosphoglycerate kinase from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

TitleThioredoxin-dependent redox regulation of chloroplastic phosphoglycerate kinase from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2014
AuthorsMorisse, S, Michelet, L, Bedhomme, M, Marchand, CH, Calvaresi, M, Trost, P, Fermani, S, Zaffagnini, M, Lemaire, SD
JournalJ Biol Chem
Date PublishedOct 24
ISBN Number1083-351X (Electronic)0021-9258 (Linking)
KeywordsAnimals, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/drug effects/*enzymology/radiation effects, Chloroplast Thioredoxins/*metabolism, Chloroplasts/drug effects/*enzymology/radiation effects, Conserved Sequence, Cysteine/metabolism, Disulfides/metabolism, Dithiothreitol/pharmacology, Humans, Hydrogen-Ion Concentration, Kinetics, Light, Models, Molecular, Mutagenesis, Site-Directed, Mutant Proteins/metabolism, Oxidation-Reduction/drug effects/radiation effects, Peptide Mapping, Phosphoglycerate Kinase/chemistry/*metabolism, Protein Structure, Tertiary, Sequence Analysis, Protein, Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization, Sus scrofa

In photosynthetic organisms, thioredoxin-dependent redox regulation is a well established mechanism involved in the control of a large number of cellular processes, including the Calvin-Benson cycle. Indeed, 4 of 11 enzymes of this cycle are activated in the light through dithiol/disulfide interchanges controlled by chloroplastic thioredoxin. Recently, several proteomics-based approaches suggested that not only four but all enzymes of the Calvin-Benson cycle may withstand redox regulation. Here, we characterized the redox features of the Calvin-Benson enzyme phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK1) from the eukaryotic green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and we show that C. reinhardtii PGK1 (CrPGK1) activity is inhibited by the formation of a single regulatory disulfide bond with a low midpoint redox potential (-335 mV at pH 7.9). CrPGK1 oxidation was found to affect the turnover number without altering the affinity for substrates, whereas the enzyme activation appeared to be specifically controlled by f-type thioredoxin. Using a combination of site-directed mutagenesis, thiol titration, mass spectrometry analyses, and three-dimensional modeling, the regulatory disulfide bond was shown to involve the not strictly conserved Cys(227) and Cys(361). Based on molecular mechanics calculation, the formation of the disulfide is proposed to impose structural constraints in the C-terminal domain of the enzyme that may lower its catalytic efficiency. It is therefore concluded that CrPGK1 might constitute an additional light-modulated Calvin-Benson cycle enzyme with a low activity in the dark and a TRX-dependent activation in the light. These results are also discussed from an evolutionary point of view.

Short TitleThe Journal of biological chemistry