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The emerging roles of protein glutathionylation in chloroplasts

TitleThe emerging roles of protein glutathionylation in chloroplasts
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2012
AuthorsZaffagnini, M, Bedhomme, M, Lemaire, SD, Trost, P
JournalPlant Sci
Date PublishedApr
ISBN Number1873-2259 (Electronic)0168-9452 (Linking)
KeywordsChloroplast Thioredoxins/*metabolism, Chloroplasts/*metabolism, Free Radical Scavengers/metabolism, Glutaredoxins/*metabolism, Glutathione/metabolism, Oxidation-Reduction, Plant Proteins/metabolism, Plants/*metabolism, Protein Processing, Post-Translational, Reactive Oxygen Species/*metabolism, Signal Transduction/*physiology, Sulfhydryl Compounds/metabolism

Reactive oxygen species play important roles in redox signaling mainly through a set of reversible post-translational modifications of cysteine thiol residues in proteins, including glutathionylation and dithiol/disulfide exchange. Protein glutathionylation has been extensively studied in mammals but emerging evidence suggests that it can play important roles in plants and in chloroplast in particular. This redox modification involves protein thiols and glutathione and is mainly controlled by glutaredoxins, oxidoreductases belonging to the thioredoxin superfamily. In this review, we first present the possible mechanisms of protein glutathionylation and then introduce the chloroplast systems of glutaredoxins and thioredoxins, in order to pinpoint the biochemical properties that make some glutaredoxin isoforms the master enzymes in deglutathionylation. Finally, we discuss the possible roles of glutathionylation in thiol protection, protein regulation, reactive oxygen species scavenging and redox signaling in chloroplasts, with emphasis on the crosstalk between thioredoxin- and glutaredoxin-mediated signaling pathways.

Short TitlePlant science : an international journal of experimental plant biology

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